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The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionising the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society. Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes. Constant revolutionising of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast-frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real conditions of life, and his relations with his kind.

The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the entire surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connexions everywhere.

An Arrival

31. Sussex Heights Clouds2

The cries of the distant

damaged people


can hardly be heard

through the mist.


In the pale intermission

notating birdsong


the view becomes

an absence of view.


This new disconnect

floats like soft milk


between hard blocks

where populations live.


No-one lives in the mist

abode of the defunct


they keen and clatter

at the unopened window.


Time-stained, the Viking ship

sails into town across the land


with its figurehead grimacing

with its rows of wreathed warriors.